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Authors, Copyright

Authors, copyright


This site has been designed, translated and improved thanks to the FP7 ESPaCE project by Jean-Eudes Arlot (astronomer) and Nicolas Thouvenin (engineer). We would like to thanks also all the contributors who developed the pages since years: Christian Balança, Lorca Huet, Richard Vuong, Catherine Letailleur, Maryse Martinez, Marie-France Landréa and the astronomers of Paris Observatory and Institut de mécanique céleste et de calcul des éphémérides (IMCCE) whose names are provided below.


The copy of this site must be autorized by IMCCE/UFE, Paris Observatory, 77 avenue Denfert-Rochereau, F-75014 Paris. The copy of the whole site for pedagogical and teaching purpose is permitted. Any copy of a part of the site or a copy for commercial use must ask for autorization. The use of the images without the text must be permitted by their authors (indicated in the credit).


This site is dedicated to pedagogical and teaching use for an initiation to the astronomy of the solar system. Any commefial use is prohibited.

Authors of the texts

The pages of detailed explanations are followed by the names of their authors: please contact them for using or copying patially their pages.
The authors having paticipated to the writting of the pages of this site are:

- M. Abada-Simon, LESIA, Paris Observatory ;
- J. Aboudarham, LESIA, Paris Observatory ;
- G. Adam, Lyon Observatory;
- J.-E. Arlot, IMCCE/CNRS, Paris Observatory ;
- F. Biraud, GEPI, Paris Observatory;
- D. Briot, GEPI, Paris Observatory ;
- I. Bualé, LESIA, Paris Observatory ;
- J. Caplan, M.-L. Prévot, Marseille Observatory;
- J. Crovisier, LESIA, Paris Observatory ;
- D. Crussaire, LESIA, Paris Observatory ;
- E. Davoust, Midi-Pyrénées Observatory;
- S. Débarbat, Paris Observatory ;
- V. Dehant, Royal Observatory of Belgium;
- A. Doressoundiram, LESIA, Paris Observatory ;
- P. Drossart, LESIA/CNRS, Paris Observatory ;
- T. Encrenaz, LESIA/CNRS, Paris Observatory ;
- S. Grillot, Paris Observatory ;
- M. Lerner, SYRTE, Paris Observatory ;
- J. Lévy, Paris Observatory ;
- P. Rocher, IMCCE, Paris Observatory ;
- F. Roques, LESIA, Paris Observatory ;
- G. Satre, IMCCE/CNRS, Paris Observatory ;
- D. Savoie, Palais de la Découverte, Paris ;
- J.-L. Simon, IMCCE, Paris Observatory ;
- F. Taris, SYRTE-LPTF, Paris Observatory ;
- W. Thuillot, IMCCE, Paris Observatory ;
- L. Vapillon, Paris Observatory ;
- N. Vilmer, LESIA, Paris Observatory ;
- Ph. Zarka, LESIA, Paris Observatory;
- the Paris Observatory Data Center on plasmas.

Authors of the images

A credit indicates the origin or the authors of the images proposed in this site. For any use of the images, please contact the authors. The images are provided by :

National or international organisms :
- Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russia)
- Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA)
- CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France)
- ESO (European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile and Garching, Germany)
- ESA (European Space Agency)
- HST-STSCI (Hubble Space Telescope-Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA)
- ISAS/JAXA (Japanese Space Agency)
- John Hopkins University (USA)
- JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA)
- NASA (National Air and Space Administration, Houston, Texas, USA)
- Themis (Canarian Islands, Spain)
- University of Arizona (USA)

Observatories ou institutes :
- IMCCE (Institut de mécanique céleste et de calcul des éphémérides, Paris, France)
- Institut Sternberg, Moscow (Russia)
- Besançon Observatory (France)
- Bordeaux Observatory (France)
- Côte d'Azur Observatory (France)
- Haute-Provence Observatory (France)
- Marseille Observatory (France)
- Naucsny Observatory, Crimea (Ukraine)
- Paris Observatory (France)
- Rio de Janeiro Observatory (Brazil)
- Strasbourg Observatory (France)

Astronomers or private person :
- J.E. Arlot (IMCCE/CNRS, Paris Observatory, France)
- G. Borisov (Naucsny Observatory, Crimea, Ukraine)
- W. Clark (Wa, USA)
- F. Colas (IMCCE/CNRS, Paris Observatory, France)
- H. Cottin (LISA, Paris XII University, France)
- A. Coustenis (DESPA, Paris Observatory, France) 
- L. Duriez (IMCCE/Lille University, France)
- M.F. Duval (Marseille Observatory, France)
- C.J. Hamilton (JPL, USA)
- D. Hershman (Wa, USA)
- D. Jewitt (Hawaii University, USA)
- Y. Kamide (Nikkei Science , Tokyo, Japan)
- J. Lecacheux (DESPA, Paris Observatory, France)
- A. Maury (CNRS, France)
- G. Rau (Haute-Provence Observatory, France)
- V. Rumyantsev (Naucsny Observatory, Crimea, Ukraine)
- R. Vieira-Martins (CNPQ, Rio de Janeiro Observatory, Brazil)
- C. Veiga (CNPQ, Rio de Janeiro Observatory, Brazil)

If we had missed some author in the list above, please excuse us and tell us for correction.